HARVARD REFERENCING TMA 04 The assignment Cut-off date: 5 March 2018 Important: These pages provide guidance on how to write your assignment. Please ensure you read all of this information right through until the checklist at the end. Before you start work on this assignment, please ensure that you have read the Assessment guidance specific to this module and are familiar with the advice in Social Sciences Assessment Information. These sources contain support and guidance that you may need in writing your TMA, including, for example, advice on plagiarism, referencing and the marking system. Note that failure to comply with relevant guidance could result in the loss of marks or other penalties. There is one part to this TMA. Essay Using at least two analytical approaches from Block 4 and at least one case study, assess whether international governance is primarily a top-down or bottom-up process. You must devote around 10 per cent of the word count to an explanation of the case study method you have followed. Word limit: 2200 words Learning outcomes This TMA allows you to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of: • patterns of conflict and cooperation, order and disorder in the international system and contending ideas about the potential for and sources of those, including questions relating to political change, economic development, inequality, international cooperation and governance, and security • historical development of the state system and the international economy and debates in politics and international relations, and economics around their growth, change and transformation. The TMA also allows you to demonstrate your ability to: • define and use key concepts, abstract models and theories from international relations, as well as politics and economics, to study the international system and the processes within it • analyse complex issues in international relations and critically evaluate different kinds of evidence from a variety of sources to develop detailed, reasoned arguments • critically compare and evaluate competing ideas, arguments and theories and approaches used in international relations and related disciplines • confidently select, summarise and synthesise complex information from a range of materials and sources, and interpret, read and record / take notes appropriately. Student notes This question asks you to develop an overall argument in assessing the nature of governance in the international system, showing awareness of different aspects of global governance and the different ways in which case studies and analytical approaches can be used in its exploration. You will need to apply at least two approaches from the six covered in the block (namely, game theory, the three branches of regime theory (realist, liberal institutionalist, constructivist), transnational advocacy networks (TANs) and governmentality). You will need to do this in relation to a case study of your choice that helps to explore the question, and explain your choice of case study and how you are using it to develop your analysis. As with the other TMAs you are expected to draw on module and some non-module sources. Key sources Key materials for this task are: • Week 16 is crucial for guiding your choice of case study and the different methods of using case studies • Chapters 11, 12 and 13 of the textbook, and the work on game theory in Week 15, between them, cover the six different analytical approaches you need to choose from. These are: game theory, the three branches of regime theory (realist, liberal institutionalist, constructivist), TANs and governmentality. You will focus on two of the six. • Chapter 14 ‘Theoretical reflections: liberal institutionalism and global governmentality’ contains further work on liberal institutionalism and governmentality, which provide contrasting ways of analysing global governance • Theory bites video 7: Stephen Krasner and Theory bites video 8: Iver Neumann contain material relating to these two traditions • the Counterpoint and critique audio 4 (Week 18) has a discussion of some of the strengths and weaknesses of different analytical approaches • the International relations timeline • Chapter 2 ‘Introducing international relations’ may be useful for its conceptual overview of international relations • You may also find useful external materials in the Going Further sections of the VLE. Approach You will need to focus on at least two analytical approaches to governance from the different perspectives covered in Chapters 11 to 14. Although you will be focusing on two approaches, you may want to draw in other specific relevant points from other approaches as examples/comparison; if this is the case, make sure you do not spread your discussion too thinly as you have limited word count. It is far better to apply two approaches in more depth than a large number superficially. Notice that besides emphasising top-down or bottom-up, different approaches give different answers according to how they understand the underlying dynamics of the international system (is it necessarily competitive, for example?), and according to how they understand ‘governance’ (what does it entail?). The approaches you need to choose to draw from are: game theory, the three branches of regime theory (realist, liberal institutionalist, constructivist), TANs and governmentality. You will focus on two of the six. You also need to focus your essay on a case study or case studies. We advise one case, though you may choose to use two if you want to do some comparative analysis. You can either use cases introduced in the block or, if you feel confident doing so, find cases that are not covered in the block. The case studies covered in the block include: • International economic governance and China–United States trade and economic relations in Chapter 11 ‘Governing the world economy: China and the United States’ • nuclear weapons proliferation and the NPT in Chapter 12 ‘Weapons proliferation: regimes and networks in international governance’ • landmines and nuclear weapons in Week 16 • development policy and poverty reduction in Chapter 13 ‘“Governmentality” in world politics’ and Week 17. It is essential that you explain your choice of case study and the ‘case study method’ using the guidance given in Week 16 of the study materials. You are expected to devote around 10 per cent of the word count to this task – you might want to do a little more than this but should not do much less. In doing this you will need to consider what type of case it is and how in particular you are using it in your exploration. You may also want to consider the limitations of your choices and what this might mean for your overall answer. This is a key skill that you will need to draw on in your EMA so it is advisable you pay attention to this requirement of this TMA as a ‘dry run’ for the EMA. You will also have to work with some ideas on what counts as top-down and bottom-up sources or processes of governance in the international system. This issue is touched on in numerous places across the block, but you may want to look at: • the Block 4 introduction on the top-down/bottom-up dichotomy in Week 15 • Chapter 11 ‘Governing the world economy: China and the United States’, focusing on top-down economic governance and bilateral efforts to govern • Chapter 12 ‘Weapons proliferation: regimes and networks in international governance’ on top-down processes of governance of nuclear proliferation • material in Week 16 on bottom-up processes involving network actors in global governance the discussion of network actors in Chapter 12 ‘Weapons proliferation: regimes and networks in international governance’ • Chapter 13 ‘‘Governmentality’ in world politics’ on the role of knowledge and paradigms in governing the international and online study materials on ‘global governmentality’ in Chapter 14 and Theory bites • Chapter 14 and Theory bites material on ‘top-down’ processes as seen by liberal institutionalism • material on governing through NGOs in Week 17 • material on using case studies such as the landmine regime and the attempt to abolish nuclear weapons in Week 16. In defining your argument, you may tend towards one or the other – top-down or bottom-up – as the most important aspect of governance. However, you might also question whether the idea of a ‘top’ and a ‘bottom’ really makes sense in global governance, perhaps drawing out different ideas about power and resistance in your analysis. Writing a good answer To be successful on the TMA you should: • discuss different conceptions of governance, of where it comes from and what is sought to be governed, drawing on analytical approaches from across the blocks • make it clear how approaches differ on the ‘direction’ and ‘target’ of global governance and show this by applying the chosen approaches to your case work to answer the question • provide a clear account of your case study choice and the method adopted, using the guidance given in Week 16 • provide an analysis of your case study by using different approaches to governance to explore whether issues become the focus of international governance through top-down or bottom-up processes, while also using the case to discuss strengths and weaknesses in different interpretations of governance.